Transmission Electron Microscopy

Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) are the ideal techniques to use if you need sub-nm  imaging resolution.  In addition to imaging, it is possible to obtain crystallographic phase and orientation (using electron diffraction), generate elemental maps (by using EDS or EELS), and acquire images highlighting elemental contrast (Z-contrast or HAADF-STEM mode).

How TEM/STEM works — High energy electrons (80keV-300keV) are transmitted through electron transparent samples (~100nm thick) and measured. TEM and STEM have higher spatial resolution than SEM but require more complex and time consuming sample preparation methods.